Posts Tagged 'leadership'

Getting Classroom Observations Right and #BlendedLearning Classrooms and Productive Chaos

Education Next recently published the article, “Getting classroom observations right.” The article, among many indicators of effective teachers discussed how teacher success is partially determined by the evaluation and observation systems in place in four urban school districts. They found that districts that integrate in a number of factors into the teacher evaluation system – including classroom observations, teacher identified criteria and school wide student achievement – lead to greater student achievement overall. While those school districts they studied that only used student test scores as the only measure of teacher effectiveness revealed that student achievement did not increase.

We know that in education – face-to-face, blended or online learning – that the teacher is the key to student learning. In a blended learning classroom, the teacher is the motivator, encourager and guide for students to learn concepts with the help of technology. The same is true in an online learning classroom. The way the teacher interacts with students directly impacts how engaged students are with their learning.

Currently, classroom observations focus on the teacher and how the teacher teaches in the face-to-face classroom. As blended learning is implemented in more classrooms across the U.S., what is observed in a classroom will have to change. A recent article in eSchool News talked about blended learning teachers in Idaho and how a blended learning classroom is “productive chaos.” It is challenging for an observer to know how to observe a classroom that looks like “productive chaos.”

In New York City a few years back, a principal shared with me about one of his experiences in observing a classroom that had implemented blended learning. In New York City Schools, a quality assurance officer accompanies new administrators in the observation of classrooms. Together, they observe classrooms and then compare notes after the observation. In this one case, the quality assurance officer and the new principal observed a blended learning classroom. The principal observed engaged learning, excellent use of technology and ongoing data analyzed by the teacher. The quality assurance officer saw just the opposite. That is the challenge of observing a blended learning classroom: new guidelines need to be developed to guide administrators and others in how to best observe a blended learning classroom.

Recently, the TNTP issued the working paper entitled, “Reimagining teaching in a blended classroom.” The diagram below is one aspect of thinking about how observations of blended learning teachers will need to change. The authors identified a blended learning teacher (as different from the traditional teacher) needing to be a researcher and developer, integrator, and guide.  Something for administrators and classroom observers to think about.


Tips for Administrative Support and Leadership for #Blendedlearning Implementation #ce14

As part of the blended learning strand for Connected Educator Month, a unique panel of experts provided recommendations for leadership and the implementation of blended learning programs in a recent webinar. The Recording and Slide Deck from this webinar and other CEM blended learning strand activities can be found here.


First, Anna Gu from the Christensen Institute shared the important conversation she and Michael Horn had with California superintendents about barriers encountered by superintendents who want to implement blended learning. They then produced the document, “Knocking Down Barriers: California Superintendents and Blended Learning.”  In Fall 2013, the Christensen Institute convened a group of superintendents to talk about how to overcome hurdles that inhibit the implementation of blended learning. The conversation fell into two categories: how to redesign teacher roles and how to manage the technology infrastructure. The leadership in the area of redesigning teacher roles requires administrators to deal with teacher contract issues and overall, have open ongoing conversations with teachers about their changing roles and how that may impact the teacher. One other area that schools may find barriers is the use of curriculum materials in both print and digital format. There are “perceived barriers” that keep leaders and teachers from moving forward toward blended learning goals. Identifying these “perceived barriers” and talking about these are important for the implementation of blended learning goals.

Brian Bridges from California shared the importance of longitudinal data and ongoing surveys of schools to understand how blended learning is being used. He oversaw the collection of data from California schools about blended and online learning called the eLearning census. The questions asked are an important guide for other districts and schools to consider as they gather further information about blended and online learning. Over three years, the eLearning Census in California provided some important data to show the increase in use of blended learning. Some of the other important insights provided from the surveys indicated the importance of planning ahead with input from more stakeholders regarding the blended learning implementation and provide more ongoing professional development From a leadership perspective, ongoing data and surveying of stakeholders helps to provide important information and survey metrics that can inform implementation. One of the initiatives in California under the leadership of Brian is the eLearning Strategies Symposium which will take place December 12 and 13, 2014 in San Mateo, Ca. All are invited to attend.

Anne Pasco from Huntley High School in Huntley Illinois shared how their high school implemented blended learning three years ago. At the leadership of the superintendent, the district decided it was important to have a school of choice. They started small with 3 teachers in the first year, with students taking the blended course in the first or last period of the day. The program has now grown to one-third of their school and students can take a blended class at any period during the day. When students do not have to attend their classroom, students can go to stay in commons area of the school, the learning resource center or leave campus. Common assessments in all of the subjects have shown that students do equally well in the blended and the traditional classrooms. Student surveys show that they take more responsibility for their own learning and they like that. Overall, leadership and teacher support systems have grown in a variety of ways including a better understanding for counselors in conversations with students. Students may take either a traditional or blended learning class in this traditional high school.

Travis Phelps works at St. Justin Catholic School in Santa Clara, Ca as part of the Drexel Initiative in the Catholic Diocese of San Jose. The blended learning implementation has taken place at the 8th grade level. The important aspect of blended learning is to start small and build. Overall, he shared the importance of having teachers who are flexible in teaching and with the use of technology. He and other teachers have participated in blended teacher training provided by the University of Santa Clara. He also mentioned the importance of having a supportive principal in implementing blended learning. In addition, he talked about one metric to use regarding teacher implementation is the SAMR model, which is a metric that can be used with teachers to help them understand their implementation level and direction they are heading.

Overall, the important leadership principles shared by the panelists for implementing blended learning included:

  • Start small and build
  • Get input from a variety of stakeholders as the implementation begins and continues
  • Provide a culture of innovation and empowerment support systems for teachers
  • Provide a reliable technology infrastructure
  • Have ongoing feedback from stakeholders in the form of surveys indicating amount of use and student surveys about their learning
  • Identify variety of ongoing metrics by which to measure progress of blended learning implementation

#BlendedLearning Research and Resources

The term, “blended learning” grew out of online learning and was first introduced in literature at the college level in 2004 and then at the K-12 level in 2014. The first K-12 online school opened in 1994 with the bulk of online programs opening in the mid 2000s. The first blended learning school is difficult to determine, but many suggest it was Rocketship Charter Schools that opened in San Jose, Ca 2007. It is important to note that the field of K-12 online learning began approximately in 1997 and the field of blended learning began approximately in 2007. Research in the fields of blended and online learning is emerging as you can’t study or research or evaluate something that does not exist. In addition, you can find ongoing research on my website here.

Listed below are resources that have developed in the field of blended learning.

Case Studies

Blended Learning Guides and Reports

Blended Learning Webinars

Blended Learning Videos


WebsitesTwitter Hastag for Blended Learning – #blendedlearning

#BlendedLearning Implementation: Sustainability and The Big 3

Last week I wrote about the 6 Elements for the Implementation and Sustainability of Blended Learning initiatives that I helped develop for iNACOL. The six elements that are needed to sustain and implement a blended learning program include: leadership, professional development, teaching/instructional practice, operations and policies, content and technology.

Within each of these elements, there are specific tools, strategies and pedagogy that need to be considered. And there are what many of us would consider “The Big 3” areas that will help to sustain the blended learning program. These three areas are: Cost, Evaluation and Quality. The questions to ask regarding each of these areas are listed after each below.


  • Which ongoing and one-time funds will be used for supporting the blended learning initiative?   One-time funds may be used for implementation of the program. However, identifying ongoing funding for all aspects of the initiative are critical for sustainability. These areas for ongoing funding include professional development for both administrators and teachers, technology, content, support, and devices.


  • What ongoing metrics will provide ongoing information about the progress of the blended learning initiative? What type of ongoing surveys for teachers and students will provide ongoing progress towards the goals? Formative assessments that are both academic and non-cognitive will guide the initiative forward. Simply using end-of-the-year standardized test scores is not enough to provide the ongoing needed information to ensure success of the program. Remember, blended learning initiatives can be messy, so identifying metrics that are not necessarily used in traditional school programs will help to further the goals of the program.


  • How will you determine that the teaching and content in the blended program is of high quality? What should a school administrator be looking for when observing and evaluating blended teachers? Ongoing quality control should be built into the initiative similar to the ways textbooks are selected for courses or the way that specific teaching objectives are identified for teachers to utilize. Overall, look at the established goals and then agree on what quality will look like at each stage of the implementation.

#Blendedlearning Implementation: Technology

This is the continuation in a series about the 6 Elements for the Implementation and Sustainability of Blended Learning initiatives that I helped develop for iNACOL. The six elements that are needed to sustain and implement a blended learning program include:

elementgraphic2* Element 1: Leadership
* Element 2: Professional Development
* Element 3: Teaching / Instructional Practice
* Element 4: Operations, Systems and Policies
* Element 5: Content
* Element 6: Technology

When I talk about the technology, others refer to this as the technology backbone or infrastructure. This includes the network, software and hardware, and devices used to access the content and resources for the blended learning initiative. Most school districts and schools have this infrastructure in place at some level. However, as any educator or student knows, if you can’t access what you’re looking for when you want it, then the infrastructure is not working right. The goal is to make sure there is a reliable and robust network that can be accessed by administrators, teachers and students when they need to use it. Many years ago, I had the good fortune of visiting the main office of eBay in San Jose, California. They showed us their main computer room and shared that their goal is to be up and working 99% of the time. That seems like a reasonable goal for any technology infrastructure in any school district or system.

In addition to ensuring that the technology infrastructure is reliable, there is also the need for ongoing support in operating the technology, the devices utilized and how to access the online resources. In the beginning, this support is critical and is much more time intensive than it will be once the initiative is up and running. The technology support staff should be the type of people who are encouraging and empowering to the end users, whether the end user is an administrator, teacher, parent or student.

School leaders should should consider the following key questions regarding the technology used for the blended learning initiative:

  • What technology, hardware, software, and networking, will be needed to run a successful blended learning initiative?
  • What technology infrastructure is currently available to support blended learning?
  • What investments need to be made to the school’s technological infrastructure including but not limited to bandwidth, hardware, and software?
  • What support systems are needed to maintain the technological infrastructure?
  • Will the school employ a single-platform hardware approach or utilize multiple platforms (PC, Macs)?
  • Will the school support BYOD (bring your own device) for students?
  • If the school is providing devices for staff and students, what is the ongoing plan and funding for the devices? Will you purchase or lease?
  • If the school is providing devices for staff and students, what is the ongoing plan and funding to refresh the devices? (every 3 years? or 4 years?)
  • Will staff and students access the network via wireless or hard wired?
  • What technology accessibility, if any, will students need to have outside of school?
  • How do you ensure interoperability between systems (content, hardware, learning management system)?

Overall, schools or districts will want to ensure a successful implementation of a blended learning initiative by putting the following technology infrastructure support systems and promising practices in place:

  • A robust network that can be accessed by a variety of student and teacher devices.
  • A course management system/platform has been provided for use by blended teachers, including individualized student logins, discussion board, teacher assignments, and digital grade book.
  • A platform that includes reporting and analytic capabilities that provide information to the teacher about student learning and provide opportunities for teachers to individualize student learning.
  • District technical support is available via phone and email.
  • Ongoing meetings between leadership, teachers and students about technology use and tools that facilitate progress towards the blended learning goals.
  • Ongoing communication loops (e.g. website of FAQs, ongoing blog about issues, use of Twitter, etc.) between the technology support people, school administrators, teachers, students and parents about the overall technology infrastructure and blended learning initiative.
  • Ongoing training and professional development and materials for administrators, teachers and students in the use of technology and the technology tools (this should include face-to-face, online, videos, how-to videos, screenshots, etc.) and never underestimate how students can help with this as well.

Next week, I’ll share how these elements are being instituted in a variety of schools and settings throughout the U.S.

#BlendedLearning Implementation: Content

This is the continuation in a series about the 6 Elements for the Implementation and Sustainability of Blended Learning initiatives that I helped develop for iNACOL.

elementgraphic2The six elements that are needed to sustain and implement a blended learning program include:

* Leadership
* Professional Development
* Teaching / Instructional Practice
* Operations, Systems and Policies
* Content
* Technology

I have written about the importance of leadership, professional development, teachers and operations, systems and policies. Today the focus is on Element #5, which is Content.

When talking about content, there is an initial decision that needs to be made by each system or school district: Will teachers use content from an online provider or vendor, create their own or a combination of both?

Regardless of which content decision is made, it is important to learn from the past. In the past, dating back to when computers were first introduced into schools, many school districts believed that administrative leaders should choose the technology or content first, and then invite teachers to participate. There are so many examples of  technology implementation over the years where administrators or tech coordinators chose a technology and then rolled it out to teachers. In most cases, there were a few teachers who initially adopt and use the technology and then there are those who really are not interested. When considering a blended learning implementation, the involved teachers or a group of teachers should be involved in selecting the content for blended learning. This can be part of the planning process, but should also be part of the ongoing program evaluation process. Throughout most school districts today, there are a variety of vendors being chosen to meet the different teaching and learning needs rather than selecting one vendor who can meet all needs.

The key questions to ask regarding content should be:

  • Will your school purchase vendor content or have teachers build the content?
  • If your school chooses to purchase vendor content, what process will be utilized to select the content that best meets the needs of your school?
  • If your school chooses to build their own content, what professional development will be provided for the content developers?
  • Which content management platform will be used with your purchased or developed content?
  • Which funds will be utilized to purchase or house the content?
  • How will your school ensure content meets the goals of the program (best fit)?
  • How will your school ensure content is aligned to standards?
  • What ongoing professional development will be provided to teachers regarding the use of content, the platform and alignment to standards and quality?
  • What measures will be used to indicate if the content is effective?
  • What ongoing process will be put in place to measure the effectiveness of the content?

Overall, promising practices have emerged in the content element for the implementation and sustainability of a blended learning program. Specifically these include: 1) A common platform; 2) Content Decision Making; 3) Platform Reporting, and 4) Customizable by teachers.

Having a common content and technology platform chosen by teachers makes ongoing professional development much easier. No content provider will meet all of the curriculum standards or technology needs of any school, so it is good to select one and then work with it to understands it’s strengths and weaknesses. A good content provider will work with schools and teachers to modify and improve their system to best meet the needs of the customer. Overall, having a common platform facilitates:

  • Professional development, consistency and common reporting across schools and teachers
  • The opportunity to share content between teachers and across several schools
  • Learning about the technical aspects of the platform by teachers to better deliver instruction

Choosing and evaluating the common platform is something that administrative and teacher leaders should be engaged in on an ongoing basis. Content decision making is important to consider so that:

  • Schools choose the vendor content that best meets the needs of the students that attend their school.
  • Teachers are involved in the selection of the content used at each school.
  • Students in older grades can also provide ongoing feedback about the effectiveness of the online content.

The reports that are available from the chosen content management system should be easy to use and in the ideal world, easily integrate into the other technology systems used by teachers and the school. Efficient and effective platform reporting is important so that:

  • Administrators can utilize the platform to view usage and reports to indicate teacher use and student engagement
  • Teachers can utilize platform reports to determine student learning and then customize learning for students as well as reporting information to students and parents

Finally, the platform should be customizable for daily use. The platform should be customizable so that administrators and teachers can:

  • Use the platform customize learning for students
  • Develop their own content in the platform to enhance the vendor content to customize learning for students
  • Provide individualized learning plans for students
  • Students have some choice in how they learn the content (e.g. audio, video, text, etc.)
  • Teachers can archive all lessons for the entire year so that content can be reused
  • Integrate functions of the platform on a daily basis  including lesson content, assessments, student dropbox for turning in work, and the electronic grade book that integrates with the district electronic grading system

Utilize the above content promising practices to identify and develop the ongoing review and evaluation plan for your school or district.



#BlendedLearning Implementation: Operations, Systems and Policies

This is the continuation in a series about the 6 Elements for the Implementation and Sustainability of Blended Learning initiatives that I helped develop for iNACOL.

elementgraphic2The six elements that are needed to sustain and implement a blended learning program include:

* Leadership
* Professional Development
* Teaching / Instructional Practice
* Operations, Systems and Policies
* Content
* Technology

I have talked about the importance of leadership, professional development and teachers. Today the focus is on Operations, Systems and Policies.

Successful implementation of blended learning requires the use of digital learning systems that provide teachers, school administrators, students, and parents with real-time student progress information and the ability to easily adapt content and instruction based on student performance. The systems in a school or system can include the learning management system (LMS), the content (or curriculum) management system (CMS), student information system (SIS), benchmark testing system, and other systems such as the library system. Ideally, data from all of these types of systems can be easily accessed as needed by school administrators and teachers. However, as of this writing, there are few systems in place that truly provide this type of easily accessible “data dashboard.”

In addition, the policies and the culture of the school needs to embrace innovation because implementing blended learning does not always go as smoothly as envisioned. School policies should be in place that reward innovation to impact student learning. A review by a team of teachers and administrators can uncover policies that may inhibit the type of innovation and experimentation needed when implementing a blended learning initiative.

Examples of policies that may need to be examined include but are not limited to: seat-time as a measure student performance and funding, length of time that a student has to complete required courses, scheduling availability of courses, instructional credentials, professional development to support blended and online teachers, access to required technologies, and privacy issues for student information.

Key Questions to Ask Regarding Operations, Administrative Systems, and Policy

  • How does the plan for blended learning potentially change the structure of a traditional school day (scheduling)?
  • Which state, district, and/or local policies foster or inhibit implementation (testing, accountability)?
  • What data should be collected to support individualized student learning? What systems are in place to collect this data?
  • What CMS/LMS will be utilized for the delivery of digital content and instruction?
  • What ongoing professional development will be provided to teachers engaged in blended learning?
  • What support services to students will be provided?
  • How will parents be both informed about what blended learning is, and how they can support the effort?
  • How will this new way of delivering instruction necessitate a change in teacher observations and student evaluation?

Some of the promising practices regarding operations, systems and policies that support the flexibility and innovation needed for the implementation of blended learning include:

  • One course management system selected by staff, teachers and administrators that includes the types of reports and analytics that allow teachers to easily personalize learning for students
  • Operational support for teachers is provided by one identified administrator who interacts often with a lead blended learning teacher or blended learning team
  • A culture of data driven decision-making is developed throughout the school from administrators to teachers to parents and students. Individuals at all levels need to understand how to best access, process and act upon real-time student data.
  • Participating teachers share a common planning time during the work day on at least a bi-weekly basis

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